Práticas de língua e mudança linguística entre migrantes transnacionais para a África do Sul, 1990-2020

uma pesquisa




Língua e identidade, L´íngua como capital social e econômico, Adaptação linguística, Migração e linguagem


Este artigo revisa pesquisas sobre o uso da língua entre migrantes transnacionais da África do Sul desde 1990, tomando isso como um ponto de partida conveniente como o ano do primeiro anúncio oficial da renúncia ao apartheid, levando ao seu desmantelamento legal em 1994. Considerando que a África do Sul havia incentivado a migração europeia para o país, a migração limitada da Ásia (principalmente de Taiwan) e uma migração circular controlada de trabalhadores de mineração de países vizinhos da África do Sul, ela então experimentou uma escala maior de fluxos globais de outras partes do mundo que não eram permitidos durante o apartheid. O resultado foi um aumento ainda maior na diversidade de línguas nas comunidades locais. Este artigo fornece uma visão geral das principais preocupações e ênfases dos pesquisadores ao cobrirem novas migrações da Ásia e do resto da África para a África do Sul.


Não há dados estatísticos.


Carregando Métricas ...

Biografia do Autor

Rajend Mesthrie, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Rajend Mesthrie has been teaching and researching in the field of multilingualism, language contact and variation for more than forty years. He was President of the International Congress of Linguists (2013–2018). Among his publications are the edited volumes Language in South Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2002) and the Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics (2011).

Heather Brookes , University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

Heather Brookes has worked on youth language practices from a multimodal perspective since 1998. She is Director of the Child Language Development Node at Stellenbosch University and was a finalist for the 2020 Newton Prize for her work on language development in South Africa. She was a Vice President of the International Society for Gesture Studies from 2002 to 2005. She is co-editor of Youth Language Practices and Urban Language Contact in Africa (with Rajend Mesthrie and Ellen Hurst-Harosh, Cambridge University Press 2021).


BLOMMAERT, J. Discourse: A critical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

BLOMMAERT, J. The Sociolinguistics of Globalisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

BOUILLON, A. Les amagongo: Immigrants Africains Francophones En Afrique Du Sud. Paris and Johannesburg: IFAS-ORSTOM, 1996.

BOUILLON, A. New African immigration to South Africa. Communications of the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, n. 3, Cape Town, 1998.

CHAMANGA, C. Language and Repertoire Change in Transnational Migration: A Comparison between first- and second-generation Zimbabweans in Cape Town. 2016. Dissertation (M.A.) - University of Cape Town, 2016.

CHEKERO, T.; MORREIRA, S. (2020). Mutualism Despite Ostensible Difference: HuShamwari, Kuhanyisana, and Conviviality Between Shona Zimbabweans and Tsonga South Africans in Giyani, South Africa. Africa Spectrum, v. 55, n. 1, p. 33–49, 2020.

CRUSH, J.; TEVERA, D. (Eds.). Zimbabwe's Exodus, Crisis, Migration and Survival. Southern African Migration Programme, IDRC, 2010.

DAVIDS, A. The Afrikaans of the Cape Muslims from 1815 to 1915. Pretoria: Protea Book House, 2011.

DE KADT, E.; IGE, B. O. Finding ‘‘Space’’ in South Africa: Constructing identity as a Nigerian. In: FINLAYSON, R.; SLABBERT, S. (Eds.) Languages and identities in a postcolony. Frankfurt am Mein: Peter Lang, 2005. p. 121–146.

DESAI, U. Investigation of Factors Influencing Maintenance and Shift of the Gujarati Language in South Africa’. 1997. Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Durban-Westville, 1997.

DEUMERT, A.; MABANDLA, N. ‘Every day a new shop pops up’ – South Africa’s new Chinese diaspora and the multilingual transformation of rural towns. English Today, v. 29, n. 1, p. 44-52, 2013.

DEUMERT, A.; MABANDLA, N. Globalization off the beaten track – Chinese migration to South Africa’s rural towns. In: WEI, L. (Ed.). Multilingualism in the Chinese Diaspora Worldwide. London: Routledge, 2015. p. 15-31.

DYERS, C; WANKAH, F. J. Uncovering and negotiating barriers to intercultural communication at Greenmarket Square, Cape Town’s ‘world in miniature’: An insider’s perspective. Per Linguam, v. 26, n. 1, p. 1-12, 2010.

DYERS, C.; WANKAH, F. J. ‘Us’ and ‘Them’: the discursive construction of ‘the Other’in Greenmarket Square, Cape Town. Language and Intercultural Communication, v. 12, n. 3, p. 230-247, 2012.

DYERS, C. The semiotics of new spaces: Languaging and literacy practices in one South African Township. Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN Media, 2018.

GOFFMAN, E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963.

GOVENDER, S. C. On the Fringes of a Diaspora: An appraisal of the literature on language diaspora and globalization in relation to a family of Tamil-speaking, Sri Lankan migrants to South Africa. Dissertation (M.A.) - University of Cape Town, 2012.

HUNGWE, C. The Migration Experience and Multiple Identities of Zimbabwean Migrants in South Africa. Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, v. 1, n. 5, p. 132-138, 2012.

HURST, E. English and the academy for African skilled migrants: The impact of English as an ‘Academic lingua franca’. In: MAADAD, N.; TIGHT, M. (Eds.). Academic Mobility. Bingley, UK: Emerald Books, 2014. p. 153-173.

HURST E. Local villages and global networks: the language and migration experiences of African skilled migrant academics. Globalisation, Societies and Education, v. 15, n. 1, p. 50-67, 2017.

IDEMUDIA, E. H.; WILLIAMS, J. K.; WYATT, G. E. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa. Journal of Injury and Violence, v. 5, n. 1, p. 17-27, 2013.

KAMUANGU, G. K. Language, immigration and ethnicity: The choice of language in DRC immigrant families. 2006. Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of the Witwatersrand, 2006.

KERFOOT, C.; TATAH, G. Constructing invisibility: the discursive erasure of a black immigrant learner in South Africa. In: KERFOOT, C.; HYLTENSTAM K. (Eds.). Entangled discourses: South-North Orders of Visibility. New York: Routledge, 2017. p. 37-58.

LANGENE, D. Livelihoods of post-Apartheid Congolese migrant traders in Cape Town’s Greenmarket Square: a sociolinguistic investigation. 2020. Dissertation (M.A.) - University of Cape Town, 2020.

MAI, M. M. Assessing Patterns of Language Use and Identity Among Cameroonian Migrants in Cape Town. 2006. Dissertation (M.A.) - University of the Western Cape, 2006.

MCKINNEY, C.; SOUDIEN, C. IALEI country report: Multicultural education in South Africa, 2010. Available in:

MESTHRIE, R. Language in Indenture: A Sociolinguistic History of Bhojpuri-Hindi in South Africa. London: Routledge, 1991.

MESTHRIE, R. Contacts and contexts: varying diasporic interactions and outcomes for Indian languages in South Africa. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America, January 2018 meeting. In press (Journal of Sociolinguistics).

MESTHRIE, R.; NCHANG, D.; ONWUKWE, C. Encounters with xenophobia: language experiences of Cameroonian and Nigerian migrants in South Africa. Paper presented at the ‘From Xenophobia to Pan-African Citizenship: Confronting Internalized Colonialism’ conference, Institute for Democracy, Citizenship and Public Policy in Africa, University of Cape Town, March 2020.

MOSALA, S. G. The work experience of Zimbabwean migrants in South Africa. ILO Sub-Regional Office for Southern Africa, Harare: ILO, 2008.

NCHANG, D. Language, Migration and Identity: Exploring the Trajectories and Linguistic Identities of Selected African Migrants in Cape Town, South Africa. 2018. Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of the Western Cape, 2018.

ORMAN, J. Language and ‘new’ African migration to South Africa: an overview and some reflections on theoretical implications for policy and planning. Language Policy, v. 11, p. 301-322, 2012.

PARK, Y. Y.; CHEN, A. Y. Recent Chinese Migrants in small Towns of Post-apartheid South Africa. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, v. 25, n. 1, p. 25-44, 2009.

PRABHAKARAN, V. The Telugu Language and its Influence on the Cultural Lives of the Hindu “Pravasandhras” in South Africa. 1991. Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Durban-Westville, 1991.

PRABHAKARAN, V. Social stratification in South African Telugu – a sociolinguistic case study. Alternation, v. 4, n. 2, p. 136–61, 1997.

REITZES, M.; CRAWHALL, N. Silenced by Nation-Building: African Immigrants and Language Policy in the New South Africa. Cape Town: South African Migration Project, 1997.

RWODZI, D. Linguistic Challenges faced by Foreign Migrant Workers and Informal Traders in Gauteng. 2011. Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of South Africa, 2011.

SIBIZA, G. Language and identity negotiations: an analysis of the experiences of Zimbabwean migrants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Journal of African Cultural Studies, v. 26, n. 2, p. 173-188, 2013a.

SIBIZA, G. Language and the politics of identity in South Africa: The case of Zimbabwean (Shona and Ndebele speaking) migrants in Johannesburg. 2013b. Thesis (Ph.D.) thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 2013b.

THOMPSON, M. Multilingualism in the workplace: communicative practices between store owners and assistants in Chinese shops in Cape Town. 2019. Thesis (Ph.D.) - Stellenbosch University, 2018.

THOMPSON, M. China Town as a multilingual workplace. SPiL plus, v. 56, p. 59-64, 2019.

THOMPSON, M.; ANTHONISSEN, C. Transnational Traders’ Discourse: Informal Language Policy Emerging in a South African Chinatown. Language Matters, v. 50, n. 1, p. 3-24, 2019.

UMANA, H. Nigerian Pidgin English in Cape Town: exploring speaker’s attitudes and use in diaspora. 2017. Dissertation (M.A.) - University of Cape Town, 2017.

VERTOVEC, S. Introduction: New directions in the anthropology of migration and multiculturalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, v. 30, n. 6, p. 961-978, 2007a.

VERTOVEC, S. Superdiversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, v. 30, n. 6, p. 1024-1054, 2007b.

VIGOUROUX, C. ‘J’ai trop de langues dans ma tête’. In: BOUILLON, A. (Ed.). Immigration Africaine En Afrique Du Sud. Paris and Johannesburg: IFAS-Karthala, 1999. p. 171–197.

VIGOUROUX, C. ‘Je suis estranger en anglais c’est pas ma langue’. La langue comme objet de discours en contexte migratoire: Cape Town (Afrique du Sud). Le Francais en Afrique, v. 25, p. 9–28, 2001.

VIGOUROUX, C. Rencontre(s) d’un autre type: Dynamique identitaire et stratégies discursives en situation d’entretien. Lidil, v. 29, p. 127–50, 2004.

VIGOUROUX, C. ‘There are no whites in Africa:’ Territoriality, language and identity among Francophone Africans in Cape Town. Language & Communication, v. 25, p. 237-255, 2005.

VIGOUROUX, C. “The smuggling of La Francophonie”: Francophone Africans in Anglophone Cape Town (South Africa). Language in Society, v. 37, p. 415–434, 2008.

VIGOUROUX, C. B. From Africa to Africa: migration, globalization and language vitality. In: VIGOUROUX, C. B.; MUFWENE, S. S. (Eds.). Globalization and language vitality: Perspectives from Africa. London: Continuum Press, 2009. p. 229–254.




Como Citar

Mesthrie, R., & Brookes , H. (2021). Práticas de língua e mudança linguística entre migrantes transnacionais para a África do Sul, 1990-2020: uma pesquisa. Revista Da Anpoll, 52(esp), 118–137.



GT de Sociolinguística, 35 anos depois: reflexões e cenários