Estabilidade e mudança no inglês indígena nativo americano

o caso do inglês Lumbee na Carolina do Norte

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18309/ranpoll.v52iesp.1586

Palavras-chave:

Inglês Nativo Americano, Língua de contato tri-étnico, Identidade de oposição, Variedade remanescente, Acomodação linguística

Resumo

Esta descrição considera a variedade do inglês dos índios Lumbee da Carolina do Norte, o maior grupo de Índios Americanos Nativos a leste do Rio Mississippi. Eles perderam sua língua ancestral gerações atrás e viveram em um contexto rural relativamente estável, triétnico e isolado por várias gerações com afro-americanos e europeus americanos. Examinamos duas estruturas morfossintáticas proeminentes, o uso de perfective I'm em I'm a there e a remorfologização de was e were baseadas na polaridade (por exemplo, It weren’t me, e they was here) e um processo fonético menos saliente, a anteriorização da vogal BOOT. As estruturas morfossintáticas indicam traços de uma variedade remanescente regionalizada que diferenciam o Lumbee de suas variedades de grupo. O traço fonético, no entanto, mostra mudanças ao longo das gerações recentes à medida que o Lumbee passa de um alinhamento com Afro-Americanos para um com os Europeus Americanos. Explicamos o realinhamento do traço fonético para longe da Língua Afro-Americana em termos de uma identidade de oposição, na qual o Lumbee mantém sua distinção como um grupo etnolinguístico que não é Afro-Americano nem Europeu-Americano, mas especialmente não é Afro-Americano.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Metrics

Carregando Métricas ...

Biografia do Autor

Walt Wolfram, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America

Walt Wolfram is William C. Friday Distinguished University Professor at North Carolina State University, where he also directs the Language and Life Project at North Carolina State University. He has pioneered research on social and ethnic dialects of English since the 1960s and published more than 30 books and edited collections, and over 300 articles; he currently focuses on language diversity and the public interest. 

Marie Bissell, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

Marie Bissell is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Linguistics at The Ohio State University. She previously received her M.A. in English (Linguistics) from North Carolina State University. Her research focuses on sociophonetic aspects of sound change, especially with respect to vowels, in the realms of both production and perception. More broadly, she is interested in applying quantitative methods to questions about dialectology and language change.

Referências

AN Act relating to the Lumbee Indians, of North Carolina, H.R. 4656. 1956. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/84/hr4656/text

BAILEY, Guy; WIKLE, Tom; TILLEY, Jan; SAND, Lori. The apparent time construct. Language Variation and Change, v. 3, n. 3, 241-264, 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000569.

BISSELL, Marie; WOLFRAM, Walt. Back-vowel fronting and oppositional identity in a tri-ethnic context: The case of Lumbee English. American Speech, forthcoming 2021 https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-9116251.

BRITAIN, David. Was/weren’t levelling in Fenland English. Essex, England: Essex Research Reports in Linguistics, 1997.

BRUNNER, Keith. An outline of Middle English Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell, 1970.

CASSIDY, Frederic C. (Ed.). Dictionary of American regional English. v. 1, A-C. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, Belknap, 1985.

CHESHIRE, Jennifer. Variation in an English dialect: A sociolinguistic study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

COGGSHALL, Elizabeth L. The prosodic rhythm of two varieties of Native American English. In: GORMAN, K. (Ed.). University of Penn Working Papers in Linguistics, v. 14, n. 2, p. 1-9, 2008.

DANNENBERG, Clare. Sociolinguistic constructs of ethnic identity: The syntactic delineation of a Native American English variety. Publications of the American Dialect Society, n. 87. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

DANNENBERG, Clare. Grammatical and phonological manifestations of null copula in a Contact Situation. Journal of English Linguistics, v. 27, p. 356-70, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00754249922004778

DANNENBERG, Clare; WOLFRAM, Walt. Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: Be(s) in Lumbee English. American Speech, v. 73, p. 139-59, 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/455737

FRIDLAND, Valerie M.; BARLETT Kathy. The social and linguistic conditioning of back vowel fronting across ethnic groups in Memphis, Tennessee. English Language & Linguistics, v. 10, n. 1, p. 1-22, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674305001681

HUTCHESON, Neal. (producer). Indian by birth: The Lumbee dialect. Raleigh: North Carolina Language & Life Project, 2001.

JONES, Taylor. Variation and African American English: The Great Migration and regional differentiation. 2020. Dissertation (Ph.D.) - University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA, 2020.

KENDALL, Tyler. Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project. Raleigh, NC, 2007. (https://slaap.chass.ncsu.edu/).

KING, Sharese. On the negotiation of racial and regional identities: Vocalic variation in African Americans from Bakersfield. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, v. 22, n. 2, p. 100-110, 2016.

KOHN, Mary. Adolescent ethnolinguistic stability and change: A longitudinal study. 2013. Dissertation (Ph.D.) - University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

LABOV, William. The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1966.

LABOV, William. The three dialects of English. In: ECKERT, (Ed.). Quantitative analyses of sound change. New York: Academic Press, 1991. p. 1-44.

LABOV, William; ASH, Sharon; BOBERG, Charles. The atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology, and sound change. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006.

LEAP, William L. American Indian English. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 1993.

LOBANOV, Boris M. Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 49, p. 606-608, 1971. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1912396

MAYNOR LOWERY, Natalie. The Lumbee Indians: An American struggle. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.

PLICHTA, Bartlomiej; PRESTON, Dennis R. The /ay/s have it: The perception of /ay/ as a north-south stereotype in United States English. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, v. 37, n. 1, p.107-130, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03740463.2005.10416086

R CORE TEAM. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2020. URL: https://www.R-project.org/.

RAAB, Scott. “Reasonable doubt.” GQ, v. 64, n. 3, 240-47, 268-70, 1994.

SCHILLING-ESTES, Natalie; WOLFRAM, Walt. Convergent explanation and alternative regularization: Were/weren't leveling in a vernacular English variety. Language Variation and Change, v. 6, p. 273-302, 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001691

THOMAS, Erik R. An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English. Publication of the American Dialect Society 85. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

THOMAS, Erik R. (2007). Phonological and phonetic characteristics of AAVE. Language and Linguistics Compass, v. 1, p. 450-75, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00029.x

THOMAS, Erik R.; KENDALL, Tyler. NORM: The vowel normalization and plotting suite, 2007. [Online Resource: http://ncslaap.lib.ncsu.edu/tools/norm/].

TRUDGILL, Peter. (1990) The dialects of England. Oxford: Blackwell.

WOLFRAM, Walt. Dynamic dimensions of language influence: The case of American Indian English. In: GILES, Howard A.; ROBINSON, W. Peter; SMITH, Philip M. (Eds.). Language: Social Psychological Perspectives. New York: Pergammon Press, 1980. p. 377-388.

WOLFRAM, Walt. Unmarked tense in American Indian English. American Speech, v. 59, p. 31-50, 1984. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/454992

WOLFRAM, Walt. Delineation and description in dialectology: The case of perfective I'm in Lumbee English. American Speech, v. 70, p. 5-26, 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/455467

WOLFRAM, Walt. Changing ethnolinguistic perceptions in the American South. American Speech, n. 93, p. 344-73, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-7271228

WOLFRAM, Walt; DANNENBERG, Clare. Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: The case of Lumbee American Indian English. English World-Wide, v. 20, p. 79-116, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.20.2.01wol

WOLFRAM, Walt; SELLERS, Jason. Ethnolinguistic marking of past be in Lumbee vernacular English. Journal of English Linguistics, v. 27, p. 94-114, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/007542429902700203

WOLFRAM, Walt; DANNENBERG, Clare; KNICK, Stanley; OXENDINE, Linda. Fine in the world: Lumbee language in time and place. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 2002.

WOLFRAM, Walt; SCHILLING-ESTES, Natalie. Parallel development and alternative restructuring: The case of ‘weren't' intensification. In: CHESHIRE, Jennifer (Ed.). Social dialectology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003. p. 131-53.

WOLFRAM, Walt; DAUGHERTY, Jaclyn; CULLINAN, Danica. (2014). On the (in)significance of English language variation: Cherokee English and Lumbee English in comparative perspective. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, v. 20, n. 2 (Selected Papers from NWAV 42), p. 197-208, 2014.

YUAN, Jiahong; LIBERMAN, Mark. Speaker Identification in the SCOTUS Corpus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 123, n. 5, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2935783

Downloads

Publicado

2021-09-27

Como Citar

Wolfram, W., & Bissell, M. (2021). Estabilidade e mudança no inglês indígena nativo americano: o caso do inglês Lumbee na Carolina do Norte. Revista Da Anpoll, 52(esp), 82–102. https://doi.org/10.18309/ranpoll.v52iesp.1586

Edição

Seção

GT de Sociolinguística, 35 anos depois: reflexões e cenários